Basic Muslim Belief: What is Written in Mushafs is Really the Quran

The Muslims of Ahlus-Sunnah have always agreed that what is written in their mus-hafs is really the Quran, just as what is recited orally and memorized by heart is really the Quran.  This consensus, based on clear texts in the Book and the Sunnah, stands in staunch opposition to the modern revival of an ancient Jahmite innovation, that the writing in the mus-haf only represents the Quran, a belief taught openly by Yusuf Estes over the last ten years or so.

This article establishes the correct beliefs clearly from the Book and the Sunnah, and it shows how important the issue was to the early scholars of Islam who declared those who opposed this belief to be outside of Islaam.

In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Ever Merciful…

Allah has referred to the Quran as a Book, which by definition is something written, in many Quranic passages. One example would be:

﴿ وَالطُّورِ وَكِتَابٍ مَسْطُورٍ فِي رَقٍّ مَنْشُورٍ ﴾

( By the Mountain, and by a written Book (the Quran), written in pages of a book spread out ) [1] 

The great scholar of Tafseer (Quranic Exegesis) from the second generation of Muslims, Mujaahid ibn Jabr said:

﴿ فِي رَقٍّ مَنْشُورٍ ﴾ فِي صُحُفٍ

( Fee Raq-qin Manshoor ) means: in pages.[2]

The earliest Quran scholars of the Companions and their students and others said it means: a written book.[3] 

The Prophet (may Allah raise his rank and grant him peace) said:

(( لَا تُسَافِرُواْ بِالقُرْآنِ، فَإِنِّي لَا آمَنُ أَنْ يَنَالَهُ العَدُوُّ ))

(( Do not travel with the Quran, since I can not guarantee that the enemies would not get a hold of it. ))[4]

Quite obviously, the Messenger of Allah (may Allah raise his rank and grant him peace) was not referring to the Quran memorized in their hearts or the Quran in al-Lowh al-Mahfooth (the Preserved Tablet)!  He was referring to the mus-haf, the written Quran, and he explicitly called it “the Quran”.

‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab, the second Caliph of the Muslims (may Allah be pleased with him), had no problem with this expression either, as it is narrated that he wrote to the governors in the various lands under his rule, following the best example, saying:

لَا تُسَافِرُوا بِالقُرْآنِ إِلَى أَرْضِ العَدُوِّ، فَإِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ يَنَالَهُ أَحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ

“Do not travel with the Quran to enemy lands, since I fear that one of them might get a hold of it.” [5] 

Aboo Bakr As-Siddeeq, the first Caliph, placed Zayd ibn Thaabit (may Allah be pleased with them both) in charge of compiling the scattered writings of the Quran into one mus-haf, as the era of Divine Revelation had just ended, and the Quran could not have been compiled into one book while it was still coming down.  Zayd said about the gravity of this task:

فَوَاللهِ لَوْ كَلَّفُونِي نَقْلَ جَبَلٍ مِنَ الجِبَالِ مَا كَانَ أَثْقَلَ عَلَيَّ مِمَّا أَمَرَنِي بِهِ مِنْ جَمْعِ القُرْآنِ

“I swear by Allah, had they placed me in charge of moving a mountain, it would not have been more heavy than the task he ordered me with of compiling the Quran (into one mus-haf)!” [6] 

During that time and ever since, this event is referred to by the Muslim scholars as Jam’ al-Quran, or the compilation of the Quran (into one mus-haf).[7]

‘Uthmaan ibn ‘Affaan, the third Caliph (may Allah be pleased with him), said:

مَا أُحِبُّ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ عَلَيَّ يَوْمٌ وَلَيْلَةٌ حَتَّى أَنْظُرَ فِي كَلَامِ اللهِ _ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ _ [يَعْنِي: القِرَاءَةَ فِي المُصْحَفِ]

“I do not like that a day and night pass except that I look at the Speech of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic.” (meaning: reading the mus-haf) [8]

 ‘Alee ibn Abee Taalib, the fourth Caliph (may Allah be pleased with him), said:

رَحِمَ اللهُ أَبَا بَكْرِ، هُوَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ جَمَعَ القُرآنَ بَيْنَ اللَّوْحَيْنِ

“May Allah have Mercy on Aboo Bakr, for he was the first one to gather the Quran between two book covers (i.e. in one mus-haf).”[9]

‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood (may Allah be pleased with him), was reported to have said:

إِنَّ هَذَا القُرآنَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ أَظْهُرِكُمْ يُوشَكُ أَنْ يُنْزَعَ مِنْكُمْ

“Verily, this Quran in front of you is about to be snatched away from you!”

His student asked, “How could it be snatched away from us while Allah has made it firm in our hearts and we have recorded it precisely in our mus-hafs?!  He replied:

يُسْرَى عَلَيْهِ فِي لَيْلَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ، فَيُنْزَعُ مَا فِي القُلُوبِ وَيَذْهَبُ مَا فِي الْمَصَاحِفِ، وَيُصْبِحُ النَّاسُ مِنْهُ فُقَرَاءَ، [ثُمَّ قَرَأَ] ﴿ وَلَئِنْ شِئْنَا لَنَذْهَبَنَّ بِالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ ﴾

“It (the Quran) shall be taken up in one night, and everything in the hearts shall be snatched away, and everything in the mus-hafs shall go, and the people shall become needy from it (the event).  Then he recited, ( And if We wanted we could take away that which We revealed to you ).”[10]

‘Ikrimah ibn Abee Jahl, one of the Companions (may Allah be pleased with him), used to hold the mus-haf to his face, saying:

كِتَابُ رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَلَّ، كَلَامُ رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَلَّ

“The Book of My Lord, the Mighty and Majestic, the Speech of My Lord, the Mighty and Majestic!” [11] 

Ibraaheem an-Nakha’ee (d.96), a great early scholar and student of the Companions (may Allah have Mercy on him), said:

كَانَ يُقَالُ: عَظِّمُواْ القُرآنَ، يَعْنِي: كَبِّرُواْ الْمَصَاحِفَ

“It used to be said, ‘Stress the greatness of the Quran,’ meaning: Write it with large print in the mus-hafs.” [12]

Aboo Haneefah (d.150), the first of the four widely-followed imams (may Allah have Mercy on him), said:

وَالقُرْآنُ فِي المَصَاحِفِ مَكْتُوبٌ، وَفِي القُلُوبِ مَحْفُوظٌ، وَعَلَى الأَلْسُنِ مَقْرُوءٌ

“The Quran is written in the mus-hafs, memorized in the hearts, and recited on the tongues.” [13]

Another of the great imams, Ash-Shaafi’ee (d.204), also held the position that:

مَا نَتْلُوهُ مِنَ القُرْآنِ بِأَلْسِنَتِنَا وَنَسْمَعُهُ بِآذَانِنَا وَنَكْتُبُهُ فِي مَصَاحِفِنَا يُسَمَّى كَلَامَ اللهِ

“What we recite from the Quran on our tongues, listen to with our ears, and write in our mus-hafs is all called the Speech of Allah.” [14]

Is-haaq ibn Raahawayh (d.238), another one of the great early imams of the Muslims (may Allah have Mercy on him), was asked about school children using their saliva to erase the Quran from their boards. He detested that children do that, and requested that they use water instead.[15]

The point is that he was asked about the Quran written on boards, and he had no problem with this expression.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d.241), the fourth of the widely-followed imams (may Allah have mercy on him), was reported to have said:

تُوَجِّهُ القُرْآنَ عَلَى خَمْسِ جِهَاتٍ: حِفْظٍ بِالقَلْبِ، وَتِلَاوَةٍ بِاللِّسَانِ، وَسَمْعٍ بِالأُذُنِ، وَبَصَرٍ بِعَيْنٍ، وَخَطٍّ بِيَدٍ

“You interact with the Quran in five ways: [1] memorizing it by heart, [2] reciting it on the tongue, [3] listening to it with the ear, [4] viewing it with the eye, and [5] writing it by hand.” 

He went on to explain this patiently and methodically, saying:

القَلْبُ مَخْلُوقٌ، وَالمَحْفُوظُ بِهِ غَيْرُ مَخْلُوقٌ، وَاللِّسَانُ مَخْلُوقٌ، وَالمَتْلُوُّ بِهِ غَيْرُ مَخْلُوقٍ، وَالأُذُنُ مَخْلُوقٌ، وَالمَسْمُوعُ إِلَيْهِ غَيْرُ مَخْلُوقٌ، وَالعَيْنُ مَخْلُوقٌ، وَالمَنْظُورُ إِلَيْهِ مِنْهُ غَيْرُ مَخْلُوقٍ.

“A heart is something created, yet what is memorized by it (the Quran) is not created.  A tongue is something created, yet what is recited with it (the Quran) is not created. An ear is something created, yet what is heard with it (the Quran) is not created. An eye is something created, yet what is viewed with it (the Quran) is not created.” [16]

Aside from entitling one of his chapters, “The Compilation of the Quran (into one Mus-haf), Al-Bukhaaree (d.256), the famous author of the authentic Hadeeth compilation (may Allah have Mercy on him), said:

فَأَمَّا القُرْآنُ المَتْلُوُّ المُثْبَتُ فِي المَصَاحِفِ المَسْطُورُ المَكْتُوبُ المُوعَى فِي القُلُوبِ فَهُوَ كَلَامُ اللهِ تَعَالَى لَيْسَ بِخَلْقٍ

“As for the Quran that is recited, written in the mus-hafs, written down and recorded (therein), understood in the hearts, then it is the Speech of Allah the Most High, not something created.” [17]

Ibn Jareer at-Tabaree (d.310), the great early scholar and author of the famous Tafseer (Quranic Explanation) – may Allah have Mercy on him – , said:

كَلَامُ اللهِ _ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ _ غَيْرُ مَخْلُوقٍ كَيْفَ كُتِبَ، وَكَيْفَ تُلِيَ، وَفِي أَيِّ مَوْضِعٍ قُرِئَ، فِي السَّمَاءِ وُجِدَ أَوْ فِي الأَرْضِ، حَيْثُ حُفِظَ، فِي اللَّوْحِ المَحْفُوظِ كَانَ مَكْتُوبًا، أَوْ فِي أَلْوَاحِ صِبْيَانِ الكَتَاتِيبِ مَرْسُومًا، فِي حَجَرٍ نُقِشَ، أَوْ فِي وَرَقٍ خُطَّ، فِي القَلْبِ حُفِظَ، أَوْ بِاللِّسَانِ لُفِظَ، فَمَنْ قَالَ غَيْرَ ذَلِكَ أَوِ ادَّعَى أَنَّ قُرْآنًا فِي الأَرْضِ أَوْ فِي السَّمَاءِ سِوَى القُرْآنِ الَّذِي نَتْلُوهُ بِأَلْسِنَتِنَا وَنَكْتُبُهُ فِي مَصَاحِفِنَا، أَوِ اعْتَقَدَ غَيْرَ ذَلِكَ أَوْ أَضْمَرَهُ فِي نَفْسِهِ، أَوْ قَالَ بِلِسَانِهِ دَائِنًا بِهِ، فَهُوَ بِاللهِ كَافِرٌ، حَلَالُ الدَّمِ، وَبَرِيءٌ مِنَ اللهِ، وَاللهُ بَرِيءٌ مِنْهُ

“…The Speech of Allah, the Mighty and Honored, is not created, no matter how it is written, no matter how it is recited, no matter where it is recited, whether it is found in the heavens or on earth, wherever it is memorized, whether it is written in al-Lowh al-Mahfooth (Preserved Tablet) or drawn on the boards in children’s classrooms, whether it is engraved on a stone, written on a paper, memorized by heart, or recited verbally. Whoever says otherwise, or claims that a Quran on earth or in the heavens is not the same Quran we recite with our tongues and write in our mus-hafs, or believes otherwise, whether he hides it or speaks openly with it as his Religion, such a person is a disbeliever in Allah, subject to capital punishment.  He is free from Allah, and Allah is free from him…” [18]

Muhammad ibn al-Husayn Al-Aajurree (d.360), an early scholar and author of one of the most important source books of Muslim creed (may Allah have Mercy on him), stated:

وَمَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ هَذَا القُرآنَ حِكَايَةٌ لِلقُرآنِ الَّذِي فِي اللَّوْحِ المَحْفُوظِ كَذَبُواْ

“And those who claim that this Quran is only a narration of the Quran which is in al-Lowh al-Mahfooth have lied.” [19]

He also stated:

مَنْ قَالَ إِنَّ هَذَا القُرآنَ الَّذِي يَقْرَؤُهُ النَّاسُ وَهُوَ فِي المَصَاحِفِ حِكَايَةٌ لِمَا فِي اللَّوْحِ المَحْفُوظِ فَهَذَا مُنْكَرٌ، تُنْكِرُهُ العُلَمَاءُ. يُقَالُ لِقَائِلِ هَذِهِ المَقَالَةِ: القُرآنُ يُكَذِّبُكَ وَيَرُدُّ قَوْلَكَ، وَالسُّنَّةُ تُكَذِّبُكَ وَتَرُدُّ قَوْلَكَ.

“For someone to say: ‘This Quran that the people read, which is in the mus-hafs, is (only) a narration of what is in al-Lowh al-Mahfooth’ is an evil statement, one that the scholars hate.  It should be said to someone who says this: The Quran declares you a liar and rejects your statements, and the Sunnah declares you a liar and rejects your statements!” [20]

Al-Laalakaa’ee (d.418), another early scholar of Islamic Beliefs (may Allah have Mercy on him), defined the Quran in his widely recognized staple book of ‘Aqeedah as:

مَتْلُوٌّ فِي المَحَارِيبِ، مَكْتُوبٌ فِي المَصَاحِفِ، مَحْفُوظٌ فِي صُدُورِ الرِّجَالِ، لَيْسَ بِحِكَايَةٍ وَلَا عِبَارَةٍ عَنْ قُرْآنٍ، وَهُوَ قُرْآنٌ وَاحِدٌ، غَيْرُ مَخْلُوقٍ، وَغَيْرُ مَجْعُولٍ وَمَرْبُوبٍ، بَلْ هُوَ صِفَةٌ مِنْ صِفَاتِ ذَاتِهِ، لَمْ يَزَلْ مُتَكَلِّمًا، وَمَنْ قَالَ غَيْرَ هَذَا فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ ضَالٌّ مُبْتَدِعٌ مُخَالِفٌ لِمَذَاهِبِ السُّنَّةِ وَالجَمَاعَةِ

“It is recited in the mihrabs (by the leaders of congregational prayer), written in the mus-hafs, and memorized in the chests of men.  It is not a narration or a representation of the Quran.  It is one Quran, not a created thing, not something invented and developed.  Rather, it is one of Allah’s Attributes, who continues to speak (with it).  Whoever says otherwise is a stray disbelieving innovator who opposes the beliefs of the Sunnah and the Jama’ah.” [21]

Al-Laalakaa’ee also stated:

فَمَنْ قَالَ إِنَّ القُرْآنَ هُوَ الَّذِي فِي السَّمَاءِ فَقَدْ خَالَفَ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَرَدَّ مُعْجِزَاتِ نَبِيِّهِ وَخَالَفَ السَّلَفَ مِنَ الصَّحَابَةِ وَالتَّابِعِينَ وَالخَالِفِينَ لَهُمْ مِنْ عُلَمَاءِ الدِّينِ

“Anyone who says that the Quran is (only) the one in the heavens has opposed Allah and His Messenger, rejected miracles of His Prophet, and opposed the Salaf – the Companions, the Taabi’oon, and the scholars of the Religion who came after them.” [22]

Aboo ‘Uthmaan Ismaa’eel ibn ‘Abdir-Rahmaan as-Saaboonee (d.449), early author of the great book, ‘Aqeedat as-Salaf wa As-haab al-Hadeeth, said:

وَيَشْهَدُ أَصْحَابُ الحَدِيثِ وَيَعْتَقِدُونَ أَنَّ القُرآنَ كَلَامُ اللهِ وَكِتَابُهُ وَخِطَابُهُ وَوَحْيُهُ وَتَنْزِيلُهُ، غَيْرُ مَخْلُوقٍ… وَهُوَ الَّذِي تَحْفَظُهُ الصُّدُورُ، وَتَتْلُوهُ الأَلْسِنَةُ، وَيُكْتَبُ فِي الْمَصَاحِفِ، كَيْفَ مَا تُصُرِّفَ، بِقِرَاءَةِ قَارِئٍ، وَلَفْظِ لَافِظٍ، وَحِفْظِ حَافِظٍ، وَحَيْثُ تُلِيَ، وَفِي أَيِّ مَوْضِعٍ قُرِئَ، وَكُتِبَ فِي مَصَاحِفِ أَهْلِ الإِسْلَامِ وَأَلْوَاحِ صِبْيَانِهِمْ، وَغَيْرِهَا، كُلُّهُ كَلَامُ اللهِ _ جَلَّ جَلَالُهُ _ ، وَهُوَ القُرآنُ بِعَيْنِهِ الَّذِي نَقُولُ أَنَّهُ غَيْرُ مَخْلُوقٍ، فَمَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّهُ مَخْلُوقٌ، فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ بِاللهِ العَظِيمِ.

“And the people of Hadeeth all testify and believe that the Quran is the Speech of Allah, His Book, His Directive, His Inspiration, and His Revelation, not a created thing…  It is something the chests memorize and the tongues recite, and it is written in the mus-hafs.  No matter how it is interacted with, whether the recitation of a qaari’ (recitor), the spoken phrase of a speaker, the memorization of a haafith, wherever it is recited and wherever it is read, written in the mus-hafs of the people of Islam and on the (chalk)boards of their children, and elsewhere.  All of that is the Speech of Allah, His Honor be extolled, and it is the exact Quran itself that we say is not created.  Anyone who believes it to be created is a disbeliever in Allah, the Great.” [23]

‘Abdul-Ghanee ibn ‘Abdil-Waahid al-Maqdisee (d.600), the author of ‘Umdat al-Ahkaam and other widely respected works (may Allah have Mercy on him), said:

وَالقُرْآنُ كَلَامُ اللهِ _ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ _ وَوَحْيُهُ وَتَنْزِيلُهُ، وَالمَسْمُوعُ مِنَ القَارِئِ كَلَامُ اللهِ _ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ _ … وَهُوَ مَحْفُوظٌ فِي الصُّدُورِ… وَهُوَ مَكْتُوبٌ فِي المَصَاحِفِ، مَنْظُورٌ بِالأَعْيُنِ…

“And the Quran is the Speech of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, His Revelation that He sent down.  What you hear from the recitor is the Speech of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic.  It is (also) what is memorized by heart, written in the mus-hafs, and viewed by the eyes.” [24]

Ahmad ibn ‘Abdil-Haleem Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728), the great scholar of the Islamic sciences, in a discussion of a number of beliefs that the Salaf did not differ over, said:

وَأَنَّ مَا بَيْنَ لَوْحَي الْمُصْحَفِ الَّذِي كَتَبَهُ الصَّحَابَةُ _ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمْ _ كَلَامُ اللهِ

“And that what is between the two covers of the mus-haf which was written by the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) is the Speech of Allah.” [25]

And he said:

وَالقُرْآنُ الَّذِي بَيْنَ لَوْحَي الْمُصْحَفِ مُتَوَاتِرٌ، فَإِنَّ هَذِهِ الْمَصَاحِفَ الْمَكْتُوبَةَ  اتَّفَقَ عَلَيْهَا الصَّحَابَةُ، وَنَقَلُوهَا قُرْآنًا عَنِ النَّبِيِّ _ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ _ ، وَهِيَ مُتَوَاتِرَةٌ مِنْ عَهْدِ الصَّحَابَةِ، نَعْلَمُ عِلْمًا ضَرُورِيًّا أَنَّهَا مَا غُيِّرَتْ

“And the Quran that is between the two covers of the mus-haf is mutawaatir (relayed from a large group of people), as these written mus-hafs are something the Companions agreed upon, conveying them as Quran from the Prophet (may Allah raise his rank and grant him peace).  They (the mus-hafs) have been mutawaatir since the time of the Companions.  We know without a shadow of a doubt that they have not been changed.” [26]

Ibn Abil-‘Izz al-Hanafee (d.792) – may Allah have Mercy on him – said:

وَمَنْ قَالَ إِنَّ المَكْتُوبَ فِي المَصَاحِفِ عِبَارَةٌ عَنْ كَلَامِ اللهِ، أَوْ حِكَايَةُ كَلَامِ اللهِ، وَلَيْسَ فِيهَا كَلَامُ اللهِ، فَقَدْ خَالَفَ الكِتَابَ وَالسُّنَّةَ وَسَلَفَ الأُمَّةِ، وَكَفَى بِذَلِكَ ضَلَالًا

“Whoever says that what is written in the mus-hafs is a representation of Allah’s Speech, or a narration of Allah’s Speech, and that it is not actually the Speech of Allah, has surely opposed the Book, the Sunnah, and the Salaf of this nation, and that is sufficient as misguidance!” [27]

Source: PDF – Yusuf Estes and the Quran (pp.15-23), by Moosaa Richardson 

[1] Soorah at-Toor (52:1-3) and its meaning in English

[2] The great scholar, al-Bukhaaree (d.256), mentioned this report in his Saheeh (13/522 of Fat-hul-Baaree), in his chapter explaining the closing Verses of Soorah al-Burooj where Allah describes His Quran as being preserved in al-Lowh al-Mahfooth (the Preserved Tablet), showing that the correct understanding is to believe that the Quran is preserved in al-Lowh al-Mahfooth while it is also written down in the mus-hafs.  His more explicit words on the topic will be mentioned shortly.

[3] See: Tafseer at-Tabaree (24/601), and ad-Durr al-Manthoor (7/550) of as-Suyootee.

[4] Collected by Muslim in his Saheeh (#1869)

[5] Collected by Sa’eed ibn Mansoor in his Sunan (2/176 of Habeeb ar-Rahmaan al-A’thamee’s printing, Daar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1388 ed.)

[6] Collected by al-Bukhaaree in his Saheeh, in the Chapter of Compiling the Quran (#4986)

[7] For example, Ibn Abee Shaybah (d.235) collected narrations about the event, entitling the section, “The First One to Gather the Quran (into One Mus-haf)”.  See his Musannaf (10/544).  As mentioned previously, Al-Bukhaaree (d.256) entitled a chapter: Compiling the Quran (into One Mus-haf).  An-Nasaa’ee (d.303) also has a chapter of the same name in his As-Sunan al-Kubraa, as does al-Bayhaqee, Al-Baghawee, and many others in their source books of hadeeth.

[8] See: Sharh ‘Aqeedat al-Haafith ‘Abdil-Ghanee al-Maqdisee (p.204) of ‘Abdur-Razzaaq al-Badr.

[9] Collected by Ahmad in Fadhaa’il as-Sahaabah (no.514, 1/433) and Al-Aajurree in Ash-Sharee’ah (no.1241-1242, 4/1782-1783).  In his checking of Fadhaa’il as-Sahaabah, Wasee Allah ‘Abbaas said its chain is hasan.

[10] Collected by Al-Bukhaaree in Khalq Af’aal al-‘Ebaad (no. 381), Ibn Abee Shaybah in his Musannaf (no.30697, 10/534), ‘Abdur-Razzaaq in his Musannaf (no. 5980-5981), al-Haakim in al-Mustadrak (4/504), and others, with a weak chain due to a narrator, Shaddaad ibn Ma’qil, whose reliability as a narrator was not established.  However, it has other chains that strengthen it, as discussed in detail in the footnotes of Sunan Sa’eed ibn Mansoor (2/335-342).  This narration can be considered a hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah raise his rank and grant him peace), since Ibn Mas’ood could not have learned it from any other source, nor would he speak about the affairs of the Unseen from his own opinion, and Allah knows best.

The raising of the Quran from the earth has also been reported by Huthayfah, as found in Sunan Ibn Maajah (no.4049), and authenticated by Al-Albaanee in As-Silsilah as-Saheehah (no.87).

[11] Collected by Ad-Daarimee (no. 3393, 4/2109), al-Haakim in al-Mustadrak (3/243), and others, with a break in the chain, and thus considered mursal, as mentioned by ath-Thahabee in his notes on al-Mustadrak.

[12] Collected by Ibn Abee Shaybah in his Musannaf (no.30730, 10/543)

[13] Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, as quoted in Sharh at-Tahaawiyyah (p.138), revised checking of Ahmad Shaakir, 1418.

[14] One of the foremost Shaafi’ee scholars, al-Bayhaqee (d.458), attributed this position to the imam in his book, al-‘Itiqaad wal-Hidaayah ilaa Sabeel ar-Rashaad (p.112 of the 1420 Daar al-Fadheelah printing).

[15] Collected by Ibn Battah in his al-Ebaanah al-Kubraa (3/337, no. 2149 of the al-Faarooq al-Hadeethah printing)

[16] Collected by Ibn Battah in his al-Ebaanah al-Kubraa (3/344, no. 2167 of the al-Faarooq al-Hadeethah printing)

[17] Khalq Af’aal al-‘Ebaad, see also: Al-Asmaa’ was-Sifaat of al-Bayhaqee (2/7 of the 1422 Sawaadee printing).

[18] Sareeh as-Sunnah (p.18), published by Daar al-Khulafaa’, 1st ed., 1405, see also: Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlis-Sunnah (1/206)

[19] Ash-Sharee’ah (1/534)

[20] Ash-Sharee’ah (1/535)

[21] Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlis-Sunnah (2/364)

[22] Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlis-Sunnah (2/367)

[23] ‘Aqeedat as-Salaf wa As-haab al-Hadeeth (pp.17-18)

[24] See: Sharh ‘Aqeedat al-Haafith ‘Abdil-Ghanee al-Maqdisee (pp.199-203) of ‘Abdur-Razzaaq al-Badr, abridged.

[25] Majmoo’ al-Fataawee (12/236)

[26] Majmoo’ al-Fataawee (12/569)

[27] Sharh al-‘Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah, (pp.143-144), revised checking of Ahmad Shaakir, 1418

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